Pentaptera glabra, Pentaptera angustifolia, Terminalia arjuna Family: Combretaceae
Arjuna Myrobalan, Yermaddi, Arjun, Vella- marda, Arjuna, Vellai maruda-maram, Tella-madoi, Tormatti, Shardul, Arjuna-sadra, Sanmadat, Attumarutu, Maruthu, Sajadan, Billimatti, sadado, Holematti, Rektarjuna, Kahu, Kukubha, Nirmaruthu, Maochettu.
Common on the banks of rivers, streams, and dry water courses in sub-Himalayan tract, Central and South India and West Bengal; also planted in shade or as an ornament in avenues and parks.
- It is kashaya (astringent) and ushna (hot); beneficial in deranged kapha; cures ulcer; useful in deranged pitta; relieves fatigue and allays thirst.
- Hrdaya (heart tonic, Affinity for the heart and benefits blood flow), Kaphapittajit (conquers kapha and pitta), Kasa´svasahara (alleviates cough and breathing disorders), Medashara (reduces fat tissue), Mutravirecana (diuretic), Pramehaghna (urinary disorders, diabetic problems), Rakta´sodhana (purifies excess pitta from the blood), Raktastambhaka (vulnerary, stops bleeding), Sandhanıya (mends bones), Udardaprasaran. (alleviates urticaria), Varnya (ulcer healing, diabetic ulcers).
- Active constituents are Triterpenoid saponins Arjungenin, arjunglucocides, a lactone; Flavonoids Arjunone, arjunolone; Phytosterols; arjuneti and an essential oil. Bark contains glucotannic acid (in a concentration of 15%), a pigment, glucosidal agents, pure calcuim carbonates and some percentage of alkaline chlorides and sodium-based ash.
- According to other tests, there is no evidence of glucoside or alkaloid presence in the plant. What more, there are no traces of volatile oil content. Interestingly, the plant was characterized by abundance of calcium salts, and partial presence of magnesium and aluminum salts, Alicyclic acid, amino acids, arachidic stearate, mannitol, pyrocatechol, phytosterol, an organic acid and ester which interacts with mineral acids, some pigments, sugars, and so on.
- It is cardioprotective, cardiotonic, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective, alterative and diuretic. The plant is the most effective herbal remedy for heart diseases (for preventing and curing the conditions).
- The bark is useful as an anti-ischemic and cardioprotective agent in hypertension and in ischemic heart diseases. It induces a drug dependent decrease in blood pressure and heart rate.
- It has been reported to possess protective cardiovascular and hypolipidemic properties. It reduces the level of triglycerides and cholesterol and has been reported to enhance the synthesis of LDL-apoprotein. This enhances the elimination of cholesterol from the body.
- It is used to treat disorders accompanied by angina, pericarditis, mitral regurgitation, and endocarditis. Any type of heart failure and stroke is aided by arjuna.
- Bark extract is believed to stimulate heart muscles and improve their functionality. It serves as an aid for curing scars left on the heart muscles after surgical procedures. It is a proven tonic for heart and enhances heart activity.
- Its affinity for the chest directs arjuna to the lungs and can help alleviate productive coughs with copious mucus in bronchitis and asthma due to excess kapha. It can also treat haemoptysis from high pitta.
- Plant bark is used in dysentery, diarrhea, insufficient absorption and other bowel and bilious affections and helps in diseases of liver. It also has a tonic and diuretic effect in cases of cirrhosis of the liver.
- The plant is used to boost one’s metabolism, increase blood circulation and energize the body.
- Plant bark serves a good remedy for fractures, and contusions. Its wound healing ability is demonstrated in post-trauma healing of scars, post-operative recovery and repairing fractures. A paste or tincture applied externally can rapidly hasten healing. It is used internally and externally for healing diabetic ulcers.
- It is also useful in venereal infections. Gonorrhea and spematorrhoea sufferers may benefit from arjuna bark extract combined with sandalwood in a decoction.
1-3 masha (1-3 gm) per day can be taken safely(Bhavaprakasha Nighantu). Exercise care. Herbs in Ayurvedic medicine are commonly mixed with other herbal medicines to reduce the toxic effect one of them may produce on the body.